Sunday, December 25, 2011

How to Build a Dual Axis Solar Tracker System - Mechanism and Control Circuit Explained

The circuit and the mechanism explained in this article may be considered as the easiest and perfect dual axis solar tracker system.

The device is able to track the daytime motion of the sun precisely and shift in the vertical axis accordingly.

 The device also effectively tracks the seasonal displacement of the sun and moves the entire mechanism in the horizontal plane or in a lateral motion such that the orientation of the solar panel is always kept in a straight axis to the sun so that it complements the vertical actions of the tracker appropriately.



As shown in the figure, a relatively easy mechanism can be witnessed here. The solar tracker is basically mounted over a couple of stand with a central movable axis.

The pivotal arrangement allows the panel mounts to move on a circular axis over almost 360 degrees.

A motor gear mechanism as shown in the diagram is fitted just at the corner of the pivotal axis in such a way that when the motor rotates the entire solar panel shifts proportionately about its central pivot, either anticlockwise or clockwise, depending upon the motion of the motor which in turn depends on the position of the sun.

The position of the LDRs are critical here and the set of LDR which corresponds to this vertical plane movement is so positioned that it senses the sun light accurately and tries to keep the panel perpendicular to the sun rays by moving the motor in the appropriate direction through a definite number of stepped rotations.

The LDR sensing is actually accurately received and interpreted by an electronic circuit which commands the motor for the above explained actions.

Another mechanism which is quite similar to the above vertical setting, but moves the panel through a lateral motion or rather it moves the whole solar panel mount in circular motion over the horizontal plane.

This motion takes place in response to the position of the sun during the seasonal changes, therefore in contrast to the vertical movements; this operation is very gradual and cannot be experienced on a daily basis.

Again the above motion is in response to the command given to the motor by the electronic circuit which operates in response to the sensing done by the LDRs.

For the above procedure a different set of LDRs are used and are mounted horizontally over the panel, at a specific position as shown in the diagram.

How the Solar Tracker Control Circuit Functions

A careful investigation of the circuit shown in the diagram reveals that the whole configuration is actually very simple and straightforward. Here a single IC 324 is utilized and only two of its op amps are employed for the required operations.

The op amps are primarily wired to form a kind of window comparator, responsible for activating their outputs whenever their inputs waver or drift out of the predetermined window, set by the relevant pots.
Two LDRs are connected to the inputs of the opamps for sensing the light levels.

As long as as the lights over the two LDRs are uniform, the outputs of the opamp remain deactivated.

However the moment one of the LDRs senses a different magnitude of light over it (which may happen due to the changing position of the sun) the balance over the input of the opamp shift toward one direction, immediately making the relevant opamps output go high.

This high output instantly activates the full bridge transistor network, which in turn rotates the connected motor in a set direction, such that the panel rotates and adjusts its alignment with the sun rays until uniform amount of light is restored over the relevant set of LDRs.

Once the light level over the relevant LDR sets is restored, the opamps again become dormant and switch off their outputs and also the motor.

The above sequence keeps on happening for the whole day, in steps, as the sun alters its position and the above mechanism keeps shifting in accordance to the suns position.

It should be noted that two sets of the above explained circuit assemblies will be required for controlling the dual actions or simply to make the above discussed dual tracker solar system mechanism.

Parts List

R3 = 15K,
R4 = 39K,
P1 = 100K,
P2 = 22K,
LDR = Normal type with a resistance of around 10 K to 40K in daylight under shade and infinite resistance in complete darkness.
Op-amps are from IC 324 or separately two 741 ICs may also be incorporated.
T1, T3 = TIP31C,
T2,T4 = TIP32C,
All diodes are 1N4007
Motor = As per the load and size of the solar panel

Courtesy - Elector Electroniks India

How to Add a Set/Reset Facility in the Above Circuit

At the first glance it might appear that the above circuit does not incorporate an automatic resetting feature. However a closer investigation will show that actually this circuit will reset automatically when dawn sets in or in the morning daylight.

This might be true due to the fact that the LDRs are positioned inside enclosures which are specfiially designed in a "V" shape for facilitating this action.

From the reflection of of the rising sun light, during morning hours the sky gets more illuminated than the ground. Since the LDRs are positioned in "V" manner, the LDR which faces more toward the sky receives more light than the LDR which faces toward the ground. This situation activates the motor in the opposite direction, such that it forces the panel to revert in the early morning hours.

As the panel reverts towards the east, the relevant LDR begins getting exposed to even more ambient light from the rising sunlight, this pushes the panel even harder toward the east until both LDR are almost proportionately exposed toward the east rising sunlight, this completely resets the panel so that the process begins all over again.




Set Reset Function

In case a set reset feature becomes imperative, the following design may be incorporated.

The set switch is placed at the "sun-set" end of the tracker, such that it gets depressed when the panel finishes it's days tracking.

As can be seen in the below given figure, the supply to the tracker circuit is been given from the N/C points of the DPDT relay, it means when the 'SET" switch is pushed, the relay activates and disconnects the supply to the circuit so that the entire circuit shown in the above article now gets disconnected and does not interfere.

At the same time, the motor receives the reversing voltage via the N/O contacts so that it can initiate the reversing process of the panel to its original position.

Once the panel finishes its reversing process toward the "sun-rise" end, it pushes the reset switch  placed suitably somewhere at that end, this action deactivates the relay again resetting the entire system for the next cycle.



107 comments:

  1. This circuit would result in dramatic and chaotic movement if any sort of shadow passed over one of the light sensors. If a leaf or bird dropping covered one the panel would spin constantly.
    Clearly this has never been actually used.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Excellant circuit-appreciated the info on LDR's - i use very large one inch surplus LDR's in the bottom of a small tomato cans painted on the inside walls with green fingernail polish covered with plastic cover from flashlight and both cans taped together and mounted. Eazy to adjust and no problem with airplanes flying over my house to land at airport

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you very much John farrias, I highly appreciate your response!

      Delete
  3. Sir we want to use this circuit as a part of our Final Year Project ... We are using 100 Watts Solar Panel and Geared Motors ... We have tried this circuit but this is not working by indenting Light on LDRs ... Kindly can you help us in TroubleShooting ... ???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. This circuit is perfect and will work. Please take the help of an electronic engineer with you for understanding and troubleshooting the circuit.

      Delete
    2. Sir You are using same IC 324 But the Outputs which are provided to the H-Bridge are measured using Multimeter. It gives NOTHING (Zero Volts) ... And Our Geared Motor is of About 2A (12V) rating. Will this circuit will work for this Motor as Well ???

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    3. Outputs will produce different voltages when the LDR is illuminated with different amounts of light, and by adjusting the presets correctly.

      Delete
    4. hi, i have try this its working but a bit problem it runs only tape recorder motor, i want to run gare motor but i think there is a problem of current i have use bc 547,557 instead of tips what to do now?? regards

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  4. What is the value of T2 , Τ3 what is correct;;

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  5. where is the output goin????
    where is the solar panel here connected to????

    ReplyDelete
  6. kindly explain the role of t1 t2 t3 t4...
    i got the point of using the op-amp here...its output too....but what after that????? why are we using the transistors and y this fashion of arrangement with the motor????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. transistor arrangement is for operating the motor both ways, it's called full bridge or H-bridge transistor network.

      Delete
  7. can u explain the transistor functioning in more depth w.r.t. the circuit arrangement here????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. with balanced light on the LDRs, both the opamp outputs are logic 0 keeping the PNP transistors switched ON, and NPNs switced OFF.

      supposing LDR1 gets more light, pin#1 becomes high switching OFF T2 and switching ON T1, since T4 is already ON (because pin#7 is low) current passes via T1, motor and T4, allowing the motor to rotate on one of the directions.

      The opposite happen when the lower LDR gets more light......

      I hope you got it.

      Delete
  8. kindly explain in detail the working of the tranisitors!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  9. that was perfect sir!!!!

    thanks!!!

    ReplyDelete
  10. Can we Use Geared Motors Rated 2A 12V here in this circuit for a Dual Axis Tracker ... Total Load for One Motor will be Approx (15-20)KG For the One Axis Horizontal Rotation and The Load for the Other Motor will be Much Lager because we are using it at the Base for the Horizontal Rotation ... ???
    Can you guide in this regard?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have no idea about the accurate specifications of the system...I have tried to present the concept only.

      Delete
  11. Sir can you Explain the working of OP-Amps here in this circuit specifically. I mean how these OP-Amps will work according to the changing output voltage of LDRs when illuminated ???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Sir If we use 2A Rated Motor, then The Same IC LM324 will be used ??? I mean w.r.t. Current Ratings of IC ??? Kindly Explain.
      Thanks in Advance !!!

      Delete
    2. Motor current is related to the transistors not the IC...IC will work for all types motors provided the transistors are correctly matched with the motor.

      Delete
  12. Sir can you help us in Designing MPPT Battery Charge Controller of 10-12A ????

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Presently I do not have a true MPPT design, will inform you if I get it.

      Delete
    2. Ok Thanks a Lot Sir ... Sir currently we are facing with the Tracker circuit ... We have tried the above circuit ... At present the situation is that Motor is Rotating Continuously in in ONE direction by illuminating either LDR ... And when we cover both the LDRs (i.e. No Light) the Motor stops. But the main problem is that Once the motor starts rotating, it rotates continuously in ONE Direction irrespective of the LDR Illuminated. Can you help us Why is it So?

      Delete
    3. Illuminate the LDRs with same amount of light, and adjust the presets such that the output of the opamps produce zero voltage.

      After this if any of the LDRs is subjected to a different intensity light, the relevant opamp would produce a high at its output.

      This is how it needs to be adjusted.

      Angling the LDRs is also critical, do it as indicated in the tracker image.

      Delete
  13. sir ,
    i am using separately 741ic . i am confused with how to give supply to pin 4 and 7 in both 741ics .
    please assist me to find the solution.


    thank you

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. simply connect pin#7 of both the ICs to the positive rail, and pin#4 to the negative rail.

      Delete
  14. Sir I have a little bit of confusion ... Kindly guide us in this regard.

    1. Suppose that this circuit tracks the position of Sun during the whole day and in the Evening when the Sun sets, this tracker will be directing towards West position. Now, is this circuit capable of Automatically going back towards East Position because in the Next day, the Sun will rise from the East ... ???

    2. Can we replace the TIP Transistors with MOSFETs in order to use the dc Motor with high current Ratings ... ??? If so then How ... ???

    Kindly Explain these two Questions Separately and THANK YOU for your continueous responce, we find it very much helpful.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. 1) this circuit does not have an automatic resetting facility, you would have to do it manually every morning or at night.

      2)No, you cannot replace the transistors with mosfets. You may use tip36/tip35 for getting high current.

      Delete
  15. And If we want this circuit to Perform the Resetting Automatically as well by not changing this original circuit, what additions we have to do with it ??? Actually we want this circuit to Reset as well ... Kindly assist us if you have any idea regarding this?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. refer to the set/reset circuit given in the following article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2011/12/how-to-build-simple-transistor-circuits.html

      Put the "set" switch in a such away that the panel presses it when its aligned toward extreme east during sunrise......and place the "reset" switch such that the panel presses it when it rotates toward extreme west at dusk.

      Wire the relay contacts with motor to make it rotate opposite to the normal panel rotation when the rest button is pressed.

      Delete
  16. Please tell us that in Set/Reset circuit given in the link listed in the above mentioned Reference, where the Switches will be placed? And theses Switches will be Limit Switches or any other? And will the same Motor will work for this purpose as well or a new Motor will have to be connected?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. yes you may use a limit switch or any form of sturdy push-to-ON switch.

      the swiches should be fixed on some raised platforms on both sides, over which the panel would touch down and rest at 45degree angle facing either of the sides.

      the two switches should be positioned on these platforms such that when the panel rests over them, the relevant switch gets pressed.

      yes the same motor would work.

      find out which opamp output generates the reverse rotation in the motor, and do the following modifications:

      disconnect this opamp output and connect it through a 1N4007 diode to the bridge transistor base, also connect a 1K resistor from the transistor base side to ground.

      Now connect the collector of the set/reset PNP transistor with the above bridge transistor base through a diode 1N4007. the relay is not required remove it.

      Now the motor will move in the opposite direction everytime the reset button gets depressed by the panel at dusk.

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    2. be sure to connect collector of the PNP transistor to the bridge transistor base via a 1K resistor......otherwise the bridge transistor will blow of.

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    3. the "SET" switch should be on the west side platform (sun set).

      the "RESET" switch should be on the east side platform (sun rise).

      Delete
  17. Where the switches connection will be made in the circuit? Kindly upload the Final Circuit Diagram with these Set/Reset Switches connected as well along with the required modifications you mentioned above.
    Thanks a lot in Advance!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I'll discuss and post the diagram in a new article possibly, soon.

      Delete
  18. plz upload the complete ckt with this set/reset switch as well...thanks

    ReplyDelete
  19. Sir, Should we use the Power of 12V Directly from the Battery, our main Storage Bank for this Whole system or We design any Power Supply Circuit separate to Power this Tracker circuit? We are using Geared Motor of Approx. 2A ... So Kindly tell us what to do in this Regard?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It will depend on your choice, you may either employ a separate battery for this or from the main storage supply...

      Delete
  20. Sir, Please Post the Complete Tracker circuit with Automatically SET/RESET Feature included as well ... Thanks in Advance!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have updated the above article with the required diagram....it shows the positions of the set/reset switches

      Delete
  21. Sir Kindly update the Above given Electronics circuit with the SET/RESET Connections as well ... I mean Where the Switches will be connected Electrically???

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. It might take some time because there are already many pending requests from other readers to be completed.....

      Delete
    2. Sir Kindly Update it as soon as Possible with Set/Reset Buttons Electrical Connections. Thanks

      Delete
  22. Sir We want to incorporate the Relay and Push Buttons to perform this SET/RESET Operation. Kindly help us in Wiring the Relay Contacts for doing So depending upon the Set/Reset Button. Thanks

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In the above circuit, external set reset arrangement will not work because the LDR response will interfere with the external actions.

      The LDR response will automatically revert the panel during sun rise.

      Delete
  23. Hi Swagatam

    A little suggestion. Rather putting a Push to On switch in Set/Reset option one should go for a REED switch. Small magnet pieces may be pasted on moving Panel sides and reed switches may be fixed on static portion on some raised platform accordingly. Reed switches being encapsulated in a Glass tube will go along well with extreme weather condition and also is water proof. A plus point is that its contact will remain clean however it should never be used for higher currents as spark inside it will damage it and resulting it useless.

    Regards

    Sam

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sam,

      Thanks! That's a wonderful idea and could be tried, however in the above design the inclusion of switches won't work for resetting the panel, simply because the LDR sensing would interfere with the switch operations, and that's why I had to cancel the idea of mechanical switching for the purpose.

      Delete
  24. AOA

    A white LED can be installed near LDR appropriately which may stay off in normal operation. Above mentioned reed switch should only turn on that white LED for a mere 30 second and it will do its magic simply, like old days. What do you say?

    Regards

    Sam

    ReplyDelete
  25. AOA

    Another idea is also popping in my mind. A cheap alarm clock may be installed inside circuit box and alarm can be set at 07:00 AM. Alarm output can be detected to activate another circuit (or above mentioned LED) to move panel appropriately. I haven't read all comments but I think that's what you may trying to achieve.

    Regards

    Sam

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Sam,

      Interesting ideas!

      However I am expecting the LDRs to do it by themselves during every morning....until tested it cannot be confirmed, though.

      Delete
  26. the circuit works great. But witout reset not usefull. Waiting for update the circuit.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Sir we have checked this circuit by Placing the LDRs in the "V" Arrangement but it donot works fine for RESET/SET. Kindly update this circuit with the SET/RESET External circuitry without changing the Basic Circuit because it works fine for the Tracking purpose but the it just lacks the SET/RESET Functionality. We need the SET/RESET functionality as well. Kindly update this circuit as soon as possible.
    Thanks in Advance!!!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I have updated the article with the required circuit, you may check it out.

      Delete
  28. Sir we have Tried this SET/RESET circuitry ... We have merged these Above two circuits Together on a Single PCB ... Now The Response of the Circuit is that when SET button is pressed, The MOTOR's Direction is not changed But It continueously keeps on Moving in the same direction (ClockWise/AntiCLockwise) as it was initially without Presseing the SEt Button. On the other Hand when RESET button is pressed, The Motor gets Stopped.
    Kindly can you Guide us where the Problem might be ... ???

    Thanks a Lot.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. reverse the motor wire connections which are connected to the set/reset relay.

      Delete
  29. Sir there is No Effect on the Circuit's Working in Reversing the Motor's Connections as Well, It z working Same as described in the Previous Comment.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. that's impossible, a DC motor rotation direction will instantly change when its wire polarity is chnaged, there may be some other issue with your circuit.

      Delete
  30. shape memory alloy in series with pv control panels to create motion

    ReplyDelete
  31. I have idea about reversing the panels. if we connect the relay supply form panels wires. in day time the relay will on and supply current to circuit and during night when panels stop supplying current the relay will Off and supply current to the motor so the panels will reverse..

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks! Yes, it's a good idea, worth trying.

      Delete
  32. PLS CAN I USE THE SET/RESET CKT TO CONTROL AN AUTOMATED GATE MOTOR(S), SO THAT WHEN THE MOTOR ROTATES TO OPEN THE GATE IT TRIGGERS OFF, AND THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION (WHEN THE GATE IS CLOSED) THE CKT TRIGGER OFF AUTOMATICALLY, AND HOW IS CONFIGURED........... PLS SIR SWAGATAM, I WOULD LIKE TO ADD THAT TO MY FINAL YEAR PROJECT WORK, OR IF THERE IS A CKT THAT OPERATES THAT WAY.....THANKS, WAITING FOR YOUR RESPOND.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Christopher, please explain your requirement in a more elaborate and clear way, so that i can get the whole procedure accurately.

      Delete
  33. Sir,
    we could like to implement this project.
    can we be sure that this set/reset facilty work

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you will have to confirm it by practical testing after understanding the concept.

      Delete
  34. I understood the concept of tracker circuit,
    can you explain the concept of set/reset circuit?
    does the 12v supply to tracker circuit is related to rating of the motor?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. it's already explained at the bottom section of the article.
      the motor rating should be sufficiently large to handle the load of the panel while moving it

      Delete
  35. actually i also assemble one circuit like this but part are different i use BD 239 BD 240 & BD 139 BD 140 at T1 T2 parts & IC LM 324. It is also same but when it start to track i adjust pot resistor but here some difference as one ldr get more light then motor moves slowly. ldr not giving balance resistance at same amount of light. I tried both small & medium LDR but both not working giving better result as excepetd so can circuit work better than my circuit. because im not electronic engg for reading the circuit. Caqn you give me suggetions & guidance. please reply.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you will have to set the presets by exposing the LDRs to same amount of artificial light.

      the above setting should be tried until the motor completely shuts off or shows no response. Once this is set and confirmed, you can use it for the actual sun tracking implementation.

      Delete
  36. there are two motors to be used one for east-west and other for north-south,the same circuit is used for two motors.i am not getting clarity about the above circuit is used for one motor functioning or both plz explain me

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. one circuit for one motor system, that means two of these circuits will be needed for the proposed dual axis operation.

      Delete
  37. Why the need of variable resistors p1 and p2

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. p1 for crude adjustment

      p2 for fine tuning.

      Delete
  38. For set reset operation is there any sensor circuit which can be operated automatically

    ReplyDelete
  39. Do you have any light sensor circuit for set reset operation because at sunset illumination is absent and morning sunlight will be present so if we use sensor for set reset can there be any circuit be designed

    ReplyDelete
  40. Is ther any other easy circuit for set reset operation

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. pls read the section" How to Add a Set/Reset Facility in the Above Circuit"

      Delete
  41. In the 2nd circuit R2 and R3 are given as 4k7 is it right or is it 47k

    ReplyDelete
  42. Which type of relay is used in second circuit

    ReplyDelete
  43. Can you tell me how the 5 pins of 12v relay is connected in second circuit

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. there are 8 pins, it will depend on the selected relay pin config.

      Delete
  44. please explain the design of circuit.Why should we take resistor values to compare with reference voltage.
    For what purpose p1 and p2 adjusted.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. you will have to learn how an opamp is used as a comparator first to understand this fully, you can check out this article:

      http://homemadecircuitsandschematics.blogspot.in/2012/03/how-to-use-ic-741-as-comparator.html

      Delete
    2. Thanks,
      I meant to ask about the design and working of the circuit.
      In case of op-amp 1, pin 2 is connected to 12v with the voltage divider setup consisting of resistors 13K,100K & 22K,by voltage divider method voltage at pin 2 is
      = 12*(115/115+22)=10v is reference voltage. and op-amp 2 with reference voltage 4.3v
      when LDR is in dark setting resistance is 12K.
      When light falls on LDR which op-amp gets activated and how?

      Delete
    3. you will have to learn how an opamp functions as a comparator for understanding the above circuit.
      Briefly when the (+) inputs are high with respect to the (-) input the output of that particular opamp will be high and vice versa.
      LDR in light will increase the voltage level across the relevant pin of the relevant opamp and when in dark will do the opposite with respect to the other pinouts reference voltages.

      Delete
  45. I am not getting the connection to 12v 8 pin relay. In the circuit 'to the circuit' means where to connect. I am usig KT 450 relay it has pins 1 4 6 8 9 11 13 16. Pins 1 16 coil 4 14 com 6 11 N/O 8 9 N/C. Guide me how these tins are connected in 2nd circuit please

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. it means to the circuit supply rails (+) and (-)
      you will have to find it by yourself with the help of a meter. find the common pole, the N/C and N/O contacts by trial and error or by referring to some relevant online relay diagram.
      N/C will show continuity with the pole when power is not applied to coil, and N/O will connect when the coil is powered up.

      Delete
    2. .........in the diagram the upper relay contacts (small white circles) are the N/C while the lower ones are the N/O

      Delete
  46. Can you briefly explain the working of set/reset circuit

    ReplyDelete
  47. how the relay and transistors are working

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. when set is pressed, T1 gets latched with R4
      when reset is pressed the latch is broken.

      Delete
  48. Worked a lot on set/reset circuit but not working. I checked the base current of t1 when set is on and even off there is no difference showing 0mA. What to do ?
    Are the resistors values to be changed?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. the SET switch must be connected with the positive supply, and the reset switch must be in a switched OFF condition only then the circuit will operate..

      Delete
  49. Yes I did the same but not working

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. it means there's something wrong with the transistor connections, because as can be seen the circuit is very simple and should start working immediately.

      Delete
  50. Ok I got the output.
    working perfectly.
    My next step is to implement simple mppt circuit to the solar panel output

    ReplyDelete
  51. how to do.... anybody
    can explain about it

    ReplyDelete
  52. My set reset circuit is working. I checked by connecting red and green leds at N/C and N/O positions its working perfectly but when I connected a 12v motor it is not working.
    When set is touched motor rotates one direction when reset is pressed the motor should rotate in opposite direction even reset switch is released but this is not happening when I released the reset switch direction is same as initial. It should rotate in reverse till again set is pressed actually.
    Should I have to change the transistors with high current ratings

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. In the last circuit given in the above article, the motor will rotate only when the set button is pressed...the relay is not wired to rotate the motor in the opposite direction because we need only to set the panel back to its original position in one direction only, so the motor does not need to rotate on both directions.

      When the set button is pressed and while the motor is rotating, the relay N/C contacts makes sure that the tracker circuit is switched OFF from receiving voltage and thus does not react in any manner while the above is taking place.

      Delete
    2. ........remember the tracker circuit receives power from the N/C contacts of the set/reset circuit shown in the last diagram above.

      Delete
  53. I give you the credit for having tonnes of patience.

    ReplyDelete

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Readers are advised to proceed with the construction of the presented circuits only after understanding the concepts from the core. Not adhering to this can lead to failures and frustrations.